The person that invented the zygomatic implant was professor and physician Per-Ingvar (P-I) Brånemark. The original surgical technique for placing implants in the zygomatic bone involved entering through the palate and passing through the maxillary sinus, a process that required a visual inspection by opening a “window” in the anterior maxillary sinus wall.
After inserting the implant, the gum was completely sealed, and a removable denture was attached. After a period of 6 months, the gum was opened again and the process for building a fixed prosthesis began. The total treatment time for this original technique took about 8 months. In 1993, Dr Aparicio − along with his mentor Dr P-I Brånemark, Professor Eugene Keller (Mayo Clinic, Rochester, USA) and Dr Jordi Olivé − published the first international article explaining how major maxillary bone loss could be repaired with zygomatic implants. The article was published in the scientific journal International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants.
In 1991, Dr Malevez gave the first surgical course on zygomatic implants, explaining the traditional technique described by Prof. P-I Brånemark. In the years that followed, many authors also published about the original technique, some of which include: Agliardi E.L., Al-Nawas B., Aparicio C., Bedrossian E., Bothur S., Boyes-Varley J.G., Chow J., Corvello P.C., Davo R., Duarte L.R., Espósito M., Fazard P., Higuchi K.W., Jensen O., Malevez C., Malo P., Migliorança R.M., Nkenke E., Parel S.M., Peñarrocha M., Pi Urgell J., Stella J.P. and Vrielinck L.
The overall conclusion of the results established in these publications is that zygomatic implants are generally stable, which is helpful to the longevity of the implant. However, an undetermined number of patients experienced late-onset infections, such as oro-antral communication problems. Another common problem that occurred during the initial phases of the surgical procedure was a bulky prosthesis, as they encroached upon the space of the tongue area and made it difficult to maintain oral hygiene.